Detroit Voter Roll Cleanup Lawsuit Ends

Cleanup of Lists Underway

(DETROIT, MI.) – June 30, 2020: The federal lawsuit to enforce targeted voter roll maintenance actions formally resolved today because the Defendants in Detroit and the Michigan Secretary of State acted on data provided to them by the Public Interest Legal Foundation. (Public Interest Legal Foundation v. Detroit).

The Public Interest Legal Foundation had found thousands of dead registered voters as well as duplicates and voter records with missing information. PILF’s briefs, filed this week, note in part:

“[D]iscovery responses now enable the Plaintiff to ascertain that remedial actions were taken after filing the lawsuit. Defendants have taken action on the list of likely deceased registrants provided by the Plaintiff. Further, almost all of the duplicate registrations that Plaintiff brought to Defendants’ attention have been corrected.”

The filing further notes that data to determine the progress made was not available for review until June 25, 2020.

“This is another win for election integrity,” PILF President and General Counsel J. Christian Adams said. “This case wasn’t complicated. The City of Detroit could have started to fix these problems before litigation, but didn’t. Other jurisdictions should take note- if you don’t act on solid data that your voter rolls are corrupted with dead and duplicate registrations, you will be sued. It is also a message to left wing groups who sought to stop the cleanups. They need to stop standing in the way of clean elections and stop wasting court time with their anti-integrity agenda. Election officials can get rolls clean without removing valid registrants. It’s time groups like the League of Woman voters realized that data-driven list maintenance is something most Americans want.

Initial Detroit Voter Roll Problem Areas

–Voter Registration Rate per 2016 Citizen Voting-Age Population: 106%

— # of Dead Registrants Aged 85+: 2,503

— # of Registrations flagged for duplicate, triplicate concerns: 4,788

— # of Registrations Missing Actual Dates of Registration: 16,465

The initial complaint filed on December 10 explained the Foundation studied the City’s voter list maintenance efforts since 2017 by a variety of means. PILF originally acquired the statewide qualified voter file from the Michigan Secretary of State for the purpose of comparing registration lists against federal death records. The Foundation ultimately sampled all active registrants whose respective ages were 85 years or older, finding more than 2,500 within the age range who were listed in the Social Security Death Index with corresponding death records and/or obituaries.

The Foundation also studied and catalogued examples of single registrants who managed to become registered to vote two and even three times with matching or substantially similar names and other biographical information within the same addresses. PILF flagged a grand total of 4,788 registration files for duplicate and triplicate concerns. Among them, examples of married/maiden name conflicts, simple typographical errors, and conflicting gender designations were trending concerns.

The Foundation also flagged impossibly old and disqualifying young date of birth information held within the voter file. One registrant was stated as being born in “1823,” well before Michigan was annexed into the Union. Another 16,400 registrants were flagged due to the fact that officials did not demonstrate when they actually became registered to vote.

The Foundation sought relief under Section 8 of the National Voter Registration Act of 1993, which requires officials to make “reasonable efforts” to maintain voter lists and offers a private right to file a lawsuit if standards are not met.

The Foundation is working with election officials around the country on improving election integrity.  Election officials who do not act on validated data regarding errors and duplications may be sued under the National Voter Registration Act.

The Public Interest Legal Foundation is leading the nation in enforcing election integrity laws and the National Voter Registration Act, having brought cases in North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Michigan, Maryland, Florida, Mississippi, and Maine and filed amicus briefs in litigation across the nation.

The case was filed in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan. The case number is 2:19-cv-13638. The attorney for the Public Interest Legal Foundation was Kaylan L. Phillips. Robert L. Avers of DickinsonWright PLLC served as local counsel.

Public Interest Legal Foundation (PILF) is a 501(c)(3) public interest law firm dedicated to election integrity. The Foundation exists to assist states and others to aid the cause of election integrity and fight against lawlessness in American elections. Drawing on numerous experts in the field, PILF seeks to protect the right to vote and preserve the Constitutional framework of American elections.

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Court Brief: Thousands of Dead, Duplicated CA Voter Registrants Could Get Mail Ballots

New Amicus Briefs Outline Widespread Flaws in ‘Active’ California Voter Roll

(SACRAMENTO, CA.) – June 24, 2020: The Public Interest Legal Foundation (PILF)’s amicus briefs filed in two federal lawsuits regarding California’s expanded use of mail ballots in 2020 were accepted by their respective courts this week.

The briefs outline flaws in the California voter registration roll with particular emphasis on deceased registrants and apparently duplicated registrants with overlapping voting histories.

On June 18, Gov. Gavin Newsom signed into law a requirement that mail ballots be transmitted to all “active” registrants for use in the 2020 General Election in November. The Foundation’s briefs describe audit findings within the same “active” portion of California’s voter roll, demonstrating that widespread errors can be exacerbated even if only those registrants are getting auto-mailed ballots.

“California has a history of demonstrating that automation in voting processes will cause errors,” PILF President and General Counsel J. Christian Adams said. “Auto-mailings to active registrants won’t protect the state from sending ballots to dead and duplicated registrants—especially those who’ve shown an acknowledged willingness to take advantage of extra votes.”

California ‘Active’ Voter Roll Audit Quick Facts

— # of Dead Registrants: 23,000

— # of Registrants Who Apparently Voted in Two CA Counties in 2016: 280

— # of Registrants Who Apparently Voted Twice from Same Addresses in 2016, 2018: 1,525

— # of Registrants Duplicated Across State Lines with Apparent Voter Credits in 2018 Election: 2,000

California Mail Voting Problems 2012 – 2018

— # Mail Ballots Sent to Outdated Addresses: 836,500

— # Mail Ballots Listed as “Status Unknown”: 13,877,000

The briefs attach a letter to the California Secretary of State which outline the findings.

The Foundation ultimately sampled all active registrants, finding more than 23,000 listed as dead according to the Social Security Death Index and corresponding published obituaries.

The Foundation also studied and catalogued examples of single registrants who managed to become registered to vote multiple times in California and another state with apparently overlapping voter credits in 2018. The Foundation flagged a sample of 2,000 registration files for interstate duplicate concerns.

The Public Interest Legal Foundation is leading the nation in enforcing election integrity laws and the National Voter Registration Act, having brought cases in North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Michigan, Maryland, Florida, Mississippi, and Maine and filed amicus briefs in litigation across the nation.

The Public Interest Legal Foundation devoted significant resources into developing real data tools that find problems with election administration and works cooperatively with officials to fix findings. PILF currently has active lawsuits in North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Michigan, Maryland, and Maine and just recently settled a case in Houston, Texas.

The litigation continues in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of California. The case numbers are 2:20-cv-01044 and 2:20-cv-01055. The attorneys for the Public Interest Legal Foundation are John C. Eastman and Noel Johnson.

Public Interest Legal Foundation (PILF) is a 501(c)(3) public interest law firm dedicated to election integrity. The Foundation exists to assist states and others to aid the cause of election integrity and fight against lawlessness in American elections. Drawing on numerous experts in the field, PILF seeks to protect the right to vote and preserve the Constitutional framework of American elections.

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National Task Force Outlines 2020 Election Security Standards for Voting by Mail

Four Core Measures Will Balance Integrity and Access

(WASHINGTON, D.C.) – June 19, 2020: A task force of election integrity attorneys, researchers, and experienced election experts published Standards for Voting by Mail today. The Standards are intended to equip policymakers and election officials with specific standards and protocols for best practices to protect the integrity of the 2020 General Election, with the increasing demands for voting by mail. 

The nation is under-prepared for the 2020 Election if mail ballot demand expectations are accurate,PILF President and General Counsel J. Christian Adams said. “Authorities must withstand outside efforts to weaken mail ballot voter protections while using existing powers to safely meet demand. This report and attached best practices seek to inform and prepare officials for an election where mail voting is being demanded through both administrative edict and litigation.”

FOUR KEY PRINCIPLES FOR MAIL VOTING  
– No Automatic Mailing of Ballots
– Safeguard Return of Ballots
– Counting Must Be Secure, Transparent & Expeditious
– Preserve In-Person Voting

Task Force Founders and Members

Members of the task force are acting in their individual capacities and not on behalf of the organizations where they work; the titles are for identification purposes only.

Mr. J. Christian Adams, Esq., President & General Counsel, Public Interest Legal Foundation
Mr. Robert Alt, President & CEO, The Buckeye Institute
Mr. Charles H. Bell, Jr., Esq., Senior Partner, Bell, McAndrews & Hiltachk, LLP
The Honorable J. Kenneth Blackwell, Ohio Secretary of State (1999-2007)
The Honorable Shawnna LM Bolick, Member of Arizona House of Representatives
Mr. Francisco R. Canseco, Esq., Director, Election Integrity Project, Texas Public Policy Foundation
Mr. William Davis, Esq., Partner, Foley & Lardner, LLP
The Hon. Chuck DeVore, Vice President of National Initiatives, Texas Public Policy
Dr. John C. Eastman, Esq., Director, The Claremont Institute’s Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence
Mr. John Fund, National-Affairs Journalist and Author
Mr. Scott Gessler, Esq., Former Colorado Secretary of State
Mr. Richard P. (Pete) Hutchison, Esq., President, Landmark Legal Foundation
The Honorable Mark Koran, State Senator for Minnesota
Mr. Christopher M. Marston, Partner, Dunlap, Bennett & Ludwig
The Honorable John H. Merrill, Alabama Secretary of State
Ms. Cleta Mitchell, Esq., Partner, Foley & Lardner, LLP, Chairman, Public Interest Legal Foundation
Mr. David A. Norcross, Esq., Former Chairman of Republican National Lawyers Association, and General Counsel Republican National Committee
Ms. Linda Paine, President & Co-Founder, Election Integrity Project California
Mr. Hans von Spakovsky, Esq., Manager, Election Law Reform Initiative and Senior Fellow, The Heritage Foundation

Public Interest Legal Foundation (PILF) is a 501(c)(3) public interest law firm dedicated to election integrity. The Foundation exists to assist states and others to aid the cause of election integrity and fight against lawlessness in American elections. Drawing on numerous experts in the field, PILF seeks to protect the right to vote and preserve the Constitutional framework of American elections.

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PILF Praises 5th Circuit Ruling Protecting Texas’ Mail Voting Laws

(NEW ORLEANS, LA) – June 4, 2020: Public Interest Legal Foundation (PILF) released the following statement in celebration of the U.S. Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals’ decision regarding Texas’ absentee ballot laws.

“This is a critical win for Texas and a lesson to other states: defending your mail voting systems in the face of lawless demands is worthwhile and just,” PILF President and General Counsel J. Christian Adams said. “Don’t surrender like Virginia or New Mexico did. Mail voting is the most susceptible to fraud, and your laws are designed to prevent disenfranchisement. Fear isn’t a disability. The efforts to suggest otherwise in Texas demonstrate just how far the Left is willing to go to rewrite election laws in the face of the pandemic.

The Foundation’s previous court briefs on the matter may be accessed here. The unanimous ruling may be read here.

The Public Interest Legal Foundation is the nation’s most active public interest law firm dedicated to enforcing the National Voter Registration Act (NVRA) and ensuring the integrity of American elections – bringing more than a dozen cases to enforce voter list maintenance obligations and inspection rights under federal law in federal courts across the nation in addition to serving as amicus in more than a dozen voting law cases. The Foundation also works with election officials and policymakers to improve the integrity of elections.

Public Interest Legal Foundation (PILF) is a 501(c)(3) public interest law firm dedicated to election integrity. The Foundation exists to assist states and others to aid the cause of election integrity and fight against lawlessness in American elections. Drawing on numerous experts in the field, PILF seeks to protect the right to vote and preserve the Constitutional framework of American elections.

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J. Christian Adams to Congress: National Mail Voting is a Folly

(WASHINGTON, D.C.) – June 2, 2020. Public Interest Legal Foundation (PILF) President and General Counsel J. Christian Adams is scheduled to testify before the House Judiciary Committee this coming Wednesday regarding voting rights protections in 2020.

Adams will testify on the topic of “Protecting the Right to Vote During the COVID-19 Pandemic” on Wednesday, June 3 at 10:00am Eastern. This hearing will be accessible via Webex here.

“Vote by mail the wrong way to hold a federal election,” PILF President and General Counsel J. Christian Adams said in advance of the hearing. “We should not put the United States Postal Service in charge of the process of deciding the next President. They lose mail and deliver your neighbors packages to you. Millions of ballots that were sent out in the past never came back as valid votes. Voter rolls are not accurate to support mail voting and a mail system would send ballots to places where valid voters no longer live.”

A copy of Adams’ written testimony and exhibits can be found here. An excerpt:

“The United States is not ready for an emergency national vote-by-mail scenario in 2020—and it won’t be. Putting the election into the hands of the United States Postal Service would be folly, a disaster. Vote by mail would disenfranchise people.  It would move the election from transparent places where observers from both parties can monitor the process for fairness to moving it behind closed doors where the vulnerable and powerless are influenced by third parties.”

The Foundation has built a record of promoting election integrity and transparency in recent years, to include:

  • Successfully settling a lawsuit against Allegheny County, PA to address targeted issues within the local voter registration roll;
  • Settling a lawsuit against Harris County, TX to ensure the release of records related to foreign nationals removed from voter registration rolls;
  • Securing court opinions in Texas and Pennsylvania which make clear that voter list maintenance records involving foreign nationals are subject to public inspection;
  • Submitted briefs in COVID-19 mail voting cases in New Mexico and Virginia, detailing voter roll flaws in each state;
  • Demonstrated with the help of federal survey data how 28 million mail ballots went missing since the 2012 Election;
  • Secured a case settlement for a client against Starr County, TX  and others against Wake County, NC which outlines tailored voter list maintenance actions; and
  • Triggered a law enforcement referral between the Texas Secretary of State and Attorney General regarding potentially unlawful get-out-the-vote efforts targeting foreign nationals residing in that state.

The Public Interest Legal Foundation is the nation’s most active public interest law firm dedicated to enforcing the National Voter Registration Act (NVRA) and ensuring the integrity of American elections—bringing more than a dozen cases to enforce voter list maintenance obligations and inspection rights under federal law in federal courts across the nation in addition to serving as amicus in more than a dozen voting law cases. The Foundation also works with election officials and policymakers to improve the integrity of elections.

Public Interest Legal Foundation (PILF) is a 501(c)(3) public interest law firm dedicated to election integrity. The Foundation exists to assist states and others to aid the cause of election integrity and fight against lawlessness in American elections. Drawing on numerous experts in the field, PILF seeks to protect the right to vote and preserve the Constitutional framework of American elections.

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Report: How Left-Wing Election Reforms Are Forced on Unsuspecting Communities

‘Down the Hatch’ Explores Collusion Between Dona Ana County, NM and 3rd Party Orgs

(LAS CRUCES, NM.) – May 22, 2020: The Public Interest Legal Foundation (PILF) presents Down the Hatch: How Left-Wing Election Reforms Can Be Forced on Unsuspecting Communities, a new report detailing how sweetheart deals with outside groups can change election laws and “design” better cultures.

This report is a wake-up call for citizens concerned about their local elections,PILF President and General Counsel J. Christian Adams said. “The people are entitled to decide how to choose local officials without the agitation of well-funded special interests. Radical changes to how elections are conducted happened here with the collusion of election officials.”

Read Down the Hatch here.

Summary

–Learn How Dona Ana County invited outside groups to “design a culture” that valued “inclusive democracy” and changed election laws in the process.

–Read how sweetheart deals are floated to change election dates to better ensure preferred outcomes by outside groups.

–Witness the daily collaboration with outside activists to promote ranked choice voting reforms.

–See the personnel revolving door between activists and county offices in action.

–Review the documents between activists and officials about rescheduling an election to secure victory for a pet cause.

New Mexico Voter Roll Audit Overview

–Potentially Deceased “Active” Registrants: 1,681

–Registrants Aged 100+: 1,519

–Potentially Duplicated Registrants at Same Address: 1,584

–Potentially Duplicated Registrants Voting Twice Across State Lines: 55

–Potentially Duplicated Registrants Voting Across County Lines: 30

–Registrants Claiming Potential Commercial Addresses for Voting Purposes: 188

Public Interest Legal Foundation (PILF) is a 501(c)(3) public interest law firm dedicated to election integrity. The Foundation exists to assist states and others to aid the cause of election integrity and fight against lawlessness in American elections. Drawing on numerous experts in the field, PILF seeks to protect the right to vote and preserve the Constitutional framework of American elections.

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PILF Applauds New DOJ Election Fraud Case in Pennsylvania

DOJ Alleges Ballot Box Stuffing Conspiracy in Philly Primary Elections

(PHILADELPHIA, PA.) — May 21, 2020: The Public Interest Legal Foundation (PILF) issued this reaction to the DOJ’s announcement of charges for a Philadelphia Judge of Elections regarding alleged election fraud.

The Public Interest Legal Foundation applauds the work of United States Attorney William M. McSwain and his work to prosecute election fraud crimes,PILF President and General Counsel J. Christian Adams said. “Today there was an indictment of Philadelphia Judge of Elections Domenick J. DeMuro for allegedly conspiring to stuff ballot boxes for particular candidates in primary elections spanning from 2014 to 2016, among other charges. The Trump administration’s prosecution of election fraud stands in stark contrast to the total failure of the Obama Justice Department to enforce these laws. Right now, other federal prosecutors are aware of cases of double voting in federal elections as well as noncitizen voting. Attorney General William Barr should prompt those other offices to do their duty and prosecute known election crimes. Those who are considering election crimes should take note of U.S. Attorney McSwain’s work. Now, they have something to fear before they violate federal election laws.”

Read the DOJ announcement and case details here. Read the charging document here.

Public Interest Legal Foundation (PILF) is a 501(c)(3) public interest law firm dedicated to election integrity. The Foundation exists to assist states and others to aid the cause of election integrity and fight against lawlessness in American elections. Drawing on numerous experts in the field, PILF seeks to protect the right to vote and preserve the Constitutional framework of American elections.

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Allegheny County, PA Voter Roll Cleanup Lawsuit Ends

Settlement Secures Information-Sharing Agreement for Voter Roll List Maintenance Leads

(PITTSBURGH, PA.) — May 19, 2020: The Public Interest Legal Foundation (PILF) reached a settlement with Allegheny County, Pennsylvania to create an information-sharing agreement that allows for voter registration roll list maintenance leads and feedback. (PILF v. Voye).

The parties agreed to dismiss the case after the settlement was reached on Monday, May 18.

Allegheny County deserves credit for agreeing to fix a serious problem with elections there,PILF President and General Counsel J. Christian Adams said. “People have been getting registered two, three, four, even seven times over to vote in Pittsburgh and the suburbs. We found those problems, and the County agreed to fix them. We also outlined plans to address registration files which may be outdated, incomplete, or belong to deceased persons. This settlement demonstrates what can be accomplished when good government groups work with election officials in good faith without the interference of ideologically driven activists who oppose such measures. Those same activists push radical changes to vote by mail, which shows how important this settlement was for a clean election in Pennsylvania.”

Prior to the initiation of the lawsuit, the Foundation provided the County with more than 12,450 specific voter list maintenance leads after reviewing the official roll for evidence of potentially duplicated, deceased, incomplete, or otherwise inaccurate entries.

Settlement Terms Summary

–County will provide records showing the results of comparisons between the Foundation’s leads involving potentially deceased registrants within 60 days of the agreement.

–County will provide records showing the results of proposed duplicated registration merges within 60 days of the agreement.

–County agrees, within 60 days, to send letters to registrants with fictitious or placeholder dates of birth on file.

–County agrees to review registration records where dates of birth exceed 110 years of age and determine if death notices were previously overlooked on an annual basis for the next three years.

–County agrees to accept future list maintenance leads from the Foundation over the next one-year period.

The Foundation originally filed the lawsuit in February 2020 after performing an audit of Allegheny County’s official voter registration roll. A similar lawsuit is pending against the City of Detroit, Michigan.

The case was filed in the United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania, number 2:20-cv-00279.

Attorneys for the Public Interest Legal Foundation were Noel H. Johnson and Susan Becker. Philadelphia-based Linda A. Kerns served as local counsel.

Public Interest Legal Foundation (PILF) is a 501(c)(3) public interest law firm dedicated to election integrity. The Foundation exists to assist states and others to aid the cause of election integrity and fight against lawlessness in American elections. Drawing on numerous experts in the field, PILF seeks to protect the right to vote and preserve the Constitutional framework of American elections.

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Court Brief: Thousands of Dead Registrants Remain on Voter Rolls in Virginia

New Amicus Brief & Notice Letter Outlines Potentially Dead, Duplicate Registrants

(LYNCHBURG, VA.) – April 28, 2020: The Public Interest Legal Foundation (PILF) filed a tandem request with the Landmark Legal Foundation to file an amicus brief in the ongoing lawsuit to drop Virginia’s requirement for witness signatures on mail ballot materials as a matter of emergency amid the Coronavirus pandemic (League of Women Voters of Virginia v. Virginia State Board of Elections).

The brief outlines flaws in the full Virginia voter registration roll, potentially deceased registrants in particular, as the Commonwealth faces legal demands to remove witness signature requirements on mail ballot materials.

Virginia’s witness requirement is a longstanding measure designed to protect registrants whose ballots might fall into unintended hands. PILF document’s in the brief how the Commonwealth is apparently falling behind in removing deceased registrants. Our election systems will be taxed enough under this pandemic—the plaintiffs are simply using the crisis to further weaken election security standards.

Virginia Voter Roll Audit Quick Facts

— # of Potentially Dead Registrants: 11,600

— # of Registrations Potentially Showing Commercial Addresses: 1,772

— # of Registrants Apparently Duplicated Across State Lines with Apparent Voter Credits in 2018 Election: 592

The brief also outlines several legal issues which should reasonably maintain the existing witness requirement for mail ballots, namely that it does not create an unconstitutional burden.

The brief attaches a separate notice of violation to the Virginia Department of Elections for failing to maintain the list pursuant to the National Voter Registration Act of 1993.

The Foundation ultimately sampled all active registrants, finding more than 11,600 potentially listed as dead according to the Social Security Death Index, typically with corresponding published obituaries.

The Foundation also studied and catalogued examples of single registrants who managed to become registered to vote multiple times in Virginia and another state with apparently overlapping voter credits in 2018. The Foundation flagged a sample of 592 registration files for interstate duplicate concerns.

The Foundation also flagged another 1,772 registrants who apparently claimed potential commercial addresses as residential ones. 

PILF previously wrote to the Virginia Department of Elections to exercise caution against dropping the witness requirement at the urging of the ACLU-Virginia.

The Public Interest Legal Foundation is leading the nation in enforcing election integrity laws and the National Voter Registration Act, having brought cases in North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Michigan, Maryland, Florida, Mississippi, and Maine and filed amicus briefs in litigation across the nation.

The Public Interest Legal Foundation devoted significant resources into developing real data tools that find problems with election administration and works cooperatively with officials to fix findings. PILF currently has six active lawsuits in North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Michigan, Maryland, and Maine and just recently settled a case in Houston, Texas.

The litigation continues in the United States District Court for the Western District of Virginia. The case number is 6:20-cv-00024. The attorneys for the Public Interest Legal Foundation are J. Christian Adams and Noel Johnson. Louisa-based Graven W. Craig of CraigWilliams, PLC serves as local counsel. Michael J. O’Neill and Matthew C. Forys are attorneys for the Landmark Legal Foundation.

Public Interest Legal Foundation (PILF) is a 501(c)(3) public interest law firm dedicated to election integrity. The Foundation exists to assist states and others to aid the cause of election integrity and fight against lawlessness in American elections. Drawing on numerous experts in the field, PILF seeks to protect the right to vote and preserve the Constitutional framework of American elections.

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Report: 28 Million Mail Ballots Went Missing in Past Decade

More Than 2 Million Ballots Also Sent to Wrong Addresses

(INDIANAPOLIS, IN.) – April 13, 2020: The Public Interest Legal Foundation (PILF) today released a research brief detailing national figures for mail balloting failures, according to previous federal surveys.

Roughly 1 in 5 ballots never completed the mail voting process in the past decade.

Putting the election in the hands of the United States Postal Service would be a catastrophe. Over the recent decade, there were 28 million missing and misdirected ballots,” PILF President and General Counsel J. Christian Adams said. “These represent 28 million opportunities for someone to cheat. Absentee ballot fraud is the most common; the most expensive to investigate; and can never be reversed after an election. The status quo was already bad for mail balloting. The proposed emergency fix is worse.

PILF relied on U.S. Election Assistance Commission survey data to compile national figures regarding mail ballot errors. The federal surveys reflect the 2012, 2014, 2016, and 2018 General Elections.

The EAC defines “unknown” ballots as those that “were not returned by voter, spoiled, returned as undeliverable, or otherwise unable to be tracked by your office.”

Summary of Findings – 2012 thru 2018

Total Ballots Transmitted – 146,371,771

Number of Ballots Official Marked “Unknown” After Mailing – 28,359,530

Undeliverable Ballots – 2,147,987

Rejected Ballots upon Receipt – 1,275,924

Access the full research brief, here.

Public Interest Legal Foundation (PILF) is a 501(c)(3) public interest law firm dedicated to election integrity. The Foundation exists to assist states and others to aid the cause of election integrity and fight against lawlessness in American elections. Drawing on numerous experts in the field, PILF seeks to protect the right to vote and preserve the Constitutional framework of American elections.

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