Errors in America’s Voter Rolls

The most important election integrity document is the voter roll. It tells election officials who is eligible to vote. It controls to who and where automatic vote by mail ballots are sent. Inaccurate voter rolls lead to chaos in elections. Our team at the Public Interest Legal Foundation has fought to secure the public’s right to inspect state’s voter rolls and take legal action against states who are violating federal law by not conducting effective voter list maintenance.

We have compiled the voter rolls from across the country into a database that allows us to know who is voting twice or from beyond the grave. We’ve used this data to sue states for failing to do effective list maintenance such as not removing deceased registrants, duplicate voter registrations, and voters who move to another state.

Click on the pin in each state to learn more information about the errors in its voter roll.

Read about each state to learn more information about the errors in its voter roll.

Alabama

Alaska

Arizona

Arkansas

California

Colorado

Connecticut

Delaware

Florida

Georgia

Hawaii

Idaho

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

Kentucky

Louisiana

Maine

Maryland

Massachusetts

Michigan

Minnesota

Mississippi

Missouri

Montana

Nebraska

Nevada

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New Mexico

New York

North Carolina

North Dakota

Ohio

Oklahoma

Oregon

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

South Carolina

South Dakota

Tennessee

Texas

Utah

Vermont

Virginia

Washington

West Virginia

Wisconsin

Wyoming

Alabama

Statistics

  • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 7,922
  • 2018 Duplicate Vote Credits: 3
  • 2016 Duplicate Vote Credits: 4
  • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 1,336

Alaska

Statistics

  • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 318
  • 2018 Duplicate Vote Credits: 190
  • 2016 Duplicate Vote Credits: 209
  • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 565

Arizona

Statistics

  • Deceased Registrants as of 2020: 2,289
  • Interstate Duplicates: 32,456
  • Same Address Duplicate Registrants as of 2020: 863
  • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2020: 2,580

REPORTS

PILF released a research brief detailing that Arizona’s voter rolls had tens of thousands of duplicate and potentially unlawful registrations. These errors include over 30,000 Arizonians having registrations in other states. Arizona’s expansion of mail ballots requires increased attention to voter list maintenance. In 2020, Maricopa County led the nation with 110,000 undeliverable mail ballots.

Arkansas

Statistics

  • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 1,921
  • 2018 Duplicate Vote Credits: 3
  • 2016 Duplicate Vote Credits: 3

California

Statistics

  • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 23,414
  • 2018 Duplicate Vote Credits: 624
  • 2016 Duplicate Vote Credits: 903
  • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 7,244

Colorado

Statistics

  • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 1,119
  • 2018 Duplicate Vote Credits: 3,175
  • 2016 Duplicate Vote Credits: 3,445
  • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 805

Connecticut

Statistics

  • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 11,948
  • 2018 Duplicate Vote Credits: 7
  • 2016 Duplicate Vote Credits: 8
  • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 235

Delaware

Statistics

  • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 643
  • 2018 Duplicate Vote Credits: 1,304
  • 2016 Duplicate Vote Credits: 1,816
  • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 16

Florida

Statistics

  • Deceased Registrants as of 2020: 21,348
  • Interstate Duplicates: 99,768
  • Same Address Duplicate Registrants as of 2020: 3,619
  • 2020 Duplicate Vote Credits: 1,075
  • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2020: 2,586

REPORTS

In 2019, PILF released a report detailing a variety of vulnerabilities and data findings within the overall Palm Beach County voter registration system. These vunerabilities included individuals registered in two states, twice in Palm Beach County, and deceased registrants. 

Georgia

Statistics

  • Deceased Registrants as of 2019: 4,243 
  • 2018 Duplicate Vote Credits: 9,619
  • 2016 Duplicate vote credits at same address: 9,899
  • 2016 Duplicate Vote Credits: 903
  • Interstate Duplicates as of 2019: 844
  • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 912

Hawaii

Statistics

No data available. State does not provide adequate date of birth in the voter roll, making analysis extremely difficult. 

Idaho

Statistics

  • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 708
  • 2018 Duplicate Vote Credits: 235
  • 2016 Duplicate Vote Credits: 301
  • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 178

Illinois

Statistics

The Foundation has recently received Illinois’ voter roll and is the process of analyzing it.

Legal Victories

PILF filed a lawsuit against the Illinois State Board of Elections after they denied the Foundation’s request to inspect Illinois’ statewide voter registration records. The United States District Court for the Central District of Illinois ruled that Illinois’ failure to provide us with the state’s voter roll violated the National Voter Registration Act (NVRA). Under the NVRA, states are required to make their voter rolls available for public inspection and for photocopying at a reasonable cost.

PILF has received Illinois’ voter roll and is in the process of analyzing it.

The Court also ruled that the State Board of Elections is required to pay the Foundation’s attorney’s fees and costs.

Indiana

Statistics

No data available. State law only allows access to the voter roll to political parties and canidates for office. 

Iowa

Statistics

  • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 3,000
  • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 451

Kansas

Statistics

  • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 2,338
  • 2018 Duplicate Vote Credits: 1
  • 2016 Duplicate Vote Credits: 1
  • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 599

Kentucky

Statistics

  • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 1,280
  • 2018 Duplicate Vote Credits: 1
  • 2016 Duplicate Vote Credits: 1
  • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 824

Louisiana

Statistics

No data available. State does not provide adequate date of birth in the voter roll, making analysis extremely difficult. 

Maine

Statistics

The Foundation has ongoing litigation with Maine’s Secretary of State to obtian a copy of the state’s voter roll for analysis. 

Ongoing Litigation

In October of 2019, the Foundation requested copies of Maine’s statewide voter file and voting histories. The Secretary of State’s office notified PILF that the request was denied, citing state law that limited access to preferred persons like political parties. The Foundation filed a lawsuit in February of 2020.

During the litigation, Maine amended their law to allow access to the voter file. But, the new law prohibits recipients from using the file for anything other than “evaluating” Maine’s compliance with voter list maintenance obligations. So, for example, recipients may not use the file to evaluate other states, for things like an indiviudal registered in both Maine and Florida. The law attaches severe fines for unauthorized use.

PILF amended its complaint to challenge these use restrictions and fines. Maine moved to have the case dismissed. The court denied Maine’s motion to dismiss the lawsuit, ruling that voter rolls are public records and that the Foundation stated a plausible claim that Maine’s use restrictions were preempted by the National Voter Registration Act (NVRA). Remaining to be decided by the court is how much a state may punish and fine groups for using the voter rolls to find mistakes and problems by election officials.

Maryland

Statistics

The Foundation has received Maryland’s voter roll and is the process of analyzing it.

Legal Victories

PILF filed a lawsuit against the Maryland State Board of Elections for failing to disclose the state’s voter registration records. In September of 2020, the Board of Elections signed a settlement agreement with the Foundation where they agreed to hand over the voter roll. Under the National Voter Registration Act (NVRA), the public has a right to monitor the condition of voter rolls and hold election officials accountable for their accuracy.

Massachusetts

Statistics

  • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 41

Michigan

Statistics

  • Deceased Registrants as of 2020: 25,709
  • Interstate Duplicates: 42,468
  • Same Address Duplicate Registrants as of 2020: 9,303
  • 2020 Duplicate Vote Credits: 325
  • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2020: 481

REPORTS

PILF’s Motor Voter Mayhem report details several Michigan jurisdictions with alarming voter roll maintenance problems like duplicate registrations and potentially deceased registrants remaining on the rolls for years.

Ongoing Litigation

PILF sued Michigan Secretary of State, Jocelyn Benson, for failing to remove over 25,000 deceased registrants from the voter rolls. 3,956 of these registrants have been dead for at least two decades. Pictured  is an obituary from the Detroit Free Press and gravestone of one deceased registrant, who if alive today would be 108 years old. She died over two decades ago.

The Foundation notified the Secretary of State about these deceased individuals a year before the lawsuit was filed. In August of 2022, the Court denied the Secretary of State’s motion to dismiss the case.

Learn more about the case on the podcast episode below.

Minnesota

Statistics

  • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 816
  • 2016 Duplicate Vote Credits: 4
  • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 199

Legal Victories

Minnesota is one of six states exempted from the National Voter Registration Act (NVRA). PILF attorneys innovatively found a way to bring a voter list maintenance claim against election officials in Minessota by using the Help America Vote Act (HAVA). In 2022, we filed six HAVA complaints in six different Minnesota counties with a total of 515 duplicate registrants. The Foundation reached a settlement agreement with five of the six counties to remove a total of 440 duplicate voter registrations.

The Foundation still has one active HAVA complaint against Ramsey County.

Mississippi

Statistics

  • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 6,738
  • 2018 Duplicate Vote Credits: 2,428
  • 2016 Duplicate Vote Credits: 3,368
  • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 456

Legal Victories

In 2015, PILF sued the Noxubee County Election Commission in Mississippi because it had more voters on the voter roll than living citizens. The Foundation achieved a consent decree with the Noxubee County Election Commission to enforce obligations to maintain voter rolls according to federal law including removing registrants who have moved and passed away.

Missouri

Statistics

  • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 8,358
  • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 387

Montana

Statistics

  • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 635
  • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 765

Nebraska

Statistics

  • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 1,009
  • 2016 Duplicate Vote Credits: 3
  • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 484

Nevada

Statistics

  • Deceased Registrants as of 2020: 2,320
  • Interstate Duplicates: 18,729
  • Same Address Duplicate Registrants as of 2020: 1,921
  • 2020 Duplicate Vote Credits: 101
  • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2020: 740

New Hampshire

Statistics

No data available. State does not provide adequate date of birth in the voter roll, making analysis extremely difficult. 

New Jersey

Statistics

  • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 11,814
  • 2018 Duplicate Vote Credits: 10
  • 2016 Duplicate Vote Credits: 11
  • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 64

Reports

PILF released a research brief detailing the errors in New Jersey’s voter roll including duplicate registrations, deceased registrants, and even registrants born in the future. The Foundation uncovered one person with six voter registrations and a registrant whose birth year was listed as 956, stretching back all the way to the time of the Byzantine Empire. 

Ongoing Litigation

In May of 2022, PILF filed a lawsuit against New Jersey Secretary of State, Tahesha Way, for refusing to disclose documents explaining how election officials resolve duplicate voter registrations. The Foundation is entitled to these documents under the National Voter Registration Act (NVRA). The Court denied the Secretary’s motion to dismiss the case.

New Mexico

Statistics

  • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 1,682
  • 2018 Duplicate Vote Credits: 721
  • 2016 Duplicate Vote Credits: 863
  • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 188

New York

Statistics

  • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 59,096
  • 2018 Duplicate Vote Credits: 36
  • 2016 Duplicate Vote Credits: 94
  • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 1,312

Reports

PILF released a research brief detailing the millions of registered voters in New York missing personal identifying information (PII) and the problems this causes for voter list maintenance. The Help America Vote Act (HAVA) prohibits states from accepting a voter registration unless it contains a unique identifying number such as the last four digits of a Social Security number or driver’s license number.

Following the Foundation’s report, New York. Rep. Claudia Tenney sent a letter to DOJ Assistant Attorney General, Kristen Clarke, demanding that the Department enforce the Help America Vote Act. Additionally, Rep. Tenney along with Rep. Elise Stefanik, sent a letter to the New York Board of Elections demanding that they comply with federal law and clean up the state’s voter roll.

 

North Carolina

Statistics

  • Deceased Registrants as of 2020: 7,933
  • Interstate Duplicates: 47,303
  • Same Address Duplicate Registrants as of 2020: 16,257
  • 2020 Duplicate Vote Credits: 678
  • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2020: 1,878

Reports

PILF released a research brief detailing the tens of thousands of errors in North Carolina’s voter roll including deceased and duplicate registrants. Some of these deceased registrants have been on the voter roll for decades. One deceased registrant Hoyle Helms, a World War II vet, died in 1997 when Clinton was President. Following his death, he remained on the voter rolls for nearly 25 years.

Legal Victories

PILF sued the Wake Country Board of Elections, on behalf of the Foundation’s client the Voter Integrity Project of North Carolina, for having more voters on the voter rolls than citizens alive. In 2017, PILF reached a settlement agreement with the County Board of Elections that vastly improved the county’s voter rolls. As part of the agreement the County Board of Elections agreed to:

  • Consult the North Carolina State Board of Elections about comparing voter data against the National Change of Address system on a quarterly basis, instead of the current semi-annual schedule.
  • To review each inactive” voter “to ensure timely removal as provided by law” and make completed maintenance efforts subject to public inspection

North Dakota

Statistics

No data available. North Dakota does not have voter registration. 

Ohio

Statistics

  • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 7,368
  • 2018 Duplicate Vote Credits: 1
  • 2016 Duplicate Vote Credits: 2
  • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 1,047

Oklahoma

Statistics

  • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 5,302
  • 2018 Duplicate Vote Credits: 1
  • 2016 Duplicate Vote Credits: 1
  • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 636

Oregon

Statistics

  • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 469
  • 2018 Duplicate Vote Credits: 1
  • 2016 Duplicate Vote Credits: 1
  • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 617

Pennsylvania

Statistics

  • Deceased Registrants as of 2020: 8,837
  • Interstate Duplicates: 55,910
  • Same Address Duplicate Registrants as of 2020: 4,458
  • 2020 Duplicate Vote Credits: 462
  • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2020: 3,984

Legal Victories

PILF sued the Pennsylvania Secretary of State for failing to remove over 21,000 deceased registrants from the voter roll. Prior to the lawsuit, we provided the Commonwealth with the names of the deceased registrants who remained on the voter rolls. Our data revealed that:

  • 9,212 of these deceased registrants had been dead for at least five years
  • 1,990 had been dead for at least ten years,
  • 197 had been dead for at least twenty years.

    In April of 2021, PILF reached a settlement with the Pennsylvania Department of State to remove these over 20,000 deceased registrants from Pennsylvania’s voter roll.

    Alarmingly, hundreds of these deceased registrants showed post-death voting credits for the 2016, 2018, and 2020 elections.

    One individual we uncovered was Judith Presto. Presto voted in the 2020 election in Pennsylvania. She died in 2013. Closer examination of our data revealed her husband registered and voted for her following her death.

    We turned this information into the Pennsylvania authorities, which led to the ultimate arrest of her husband.

     

    Rhode Island

    Statistics

    • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 1,637
    • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 115

    South Carolina

    Statistics

    • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 14,351
    • 2018 Duplicate Vote Credits: 3
    • 2016 Duplicate Vote Credits: 8
    • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 528

    South Dakota

    Statistics

    • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 105
    • 2018 Duplicate Vote Credits: 100
    • 2016 Duplicate Vote Credits: 122
    • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 70

    Tennessee

    Statistics

    • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 11,126
    • 2016 Duplicate Vote Credits: 3
    • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 395

    Texas

    Statistics

    • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 36,054
    • 2018 Duplicate Vote Credits: 8
    • 2016 Duplicate Vote Credits: 13
    • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 1,952

    Legal Victories

    In 2016, PILF sued Starr County on behalf of our client, the American Civil Rights Union, for having implausibly high numbers of voter registrations in contrast to the U.S. Census counts of citizens living there. In this litigation, an election official said he would not remove a deceased induvial from the voter roll even if he saw his dead body.

    In 2018, Starr County signed a settlement agreement with the Foundation’s client that outlined a comprehensive strategy aimed at improving the quality of voter registration records and practices.

    Utah

    Statistics

    • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 1,992
    • 2018 Duplicate Vote Credits: 549
    • 2016 Duplicate Vote Credits: 585
    • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 265

    Vermont

    Statistics

    • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 104
    • 2018 Duplicate Vote Credits: 96
    • 2016 Duplicate Vote Credits: 134
    • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 15

    Virginia

    Statistics

    • Deceased Registrants as of 2020: 6,996
    • Interstate Duplicates: 44,468
    • Same Address Duplicates as of 2020: 1,341
    • 2020 Duplicate Vote Credits: 352
    • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2020: 696

    Washington

    Statistics

    • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 5,274
    • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 1,083

    West Virginia

    Statistics

    • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 3,411
    • 2018 Duplicate Vote Credits: 1
    • 2016 Duplicate Vote Credits: 1
    • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 242

    Wisconsin

    Statistics

    • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 6,805
    • Interstate Duplicates: 39,834
    • 2018 Duplicate Vote Credits: 1,828
    • 2016 Duplicate Vote Credits: 2,066
    • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2020: 800

    Wyoming

    Statistics

    • Deceased Registrants as of 2018: 311
    • 2018 Duplicate Vote Credits: 82
    • Registrants Credited for Voting from Non-Residential Addresses in 2018: 206
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